A photovoltaic (PV) panel, commonly called a solar panel, contains PV cells that absorb the sun’s light and convert solar energy into electricity. These cells, made of a semiconductor that transmits energy (such as silicon), are strung together to create a module. A typical rooftop solar panel has 30 modules. When the semiconductor in the photovoltaic panels absorbs the sunlight, this knocks the electrons (which form the basis of electricity) free from their place, and they can now flow through the semiconductor. These dislodged electrons, each carrying a negative charge, flow across the cell toward the front surface, creating an imbalance in charge between the front and the back. Photovoltaic cells produce electricity because this imbalance, in turn, creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive terminals of a battery.